Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety in the Typical Domestic Kitchen: Some Mandatory Bases for the General Public. (2023)

Citation link/page


Home cooking has always been associated with food preparation and extends to a large extent both to consumption and storage. A typical kitchen consists of various appliances and appliances, from small items like spoons, knives and cutting boards to large appliances like microwave ovens, dishwashers and stoves. And perhaps the equipment in the kitchen, as a rule, largely depends on the financial situation in the family. Regardless of how equipped a typical domestic kitchen appears to be, it is highly likely that a given kitchen occupant's food safety awareness, knowledge and practice is directly related to the hygiene situation of a specific kitchen. There are also some basic Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety (FHMS) definitions that all kitchen users should have. In this way, they (kitchen users) will be equipped with a useful knowledge base to help them develop their ability to realize, achieve and maintain a healthy kitchen environment. It is very important to keep the components of the domestic kitchen in excellent sanitary conditions, as this practice would help to consolidate the efforts of kitchen users to implement microbiological safety in all stages of food preparation/preservation. And by achieving this feat, the microbiological safety of a food served in a (typical) home kitchen can be considered safe and secure by the consumer. Consumers are clearly very useful candidates in their context in the kitchen environment, given their ability to prevent the onset and spread of foodborne illnesses/illnesses.

The main objective of food hygiene is to eliminate or reduce the risk of (human) exposure to foodborne illness. This and in relation to the domestic kitchen environment can be achieved when kitchen occupants acquire a thorough knowledge and understanding of kitchen components and associated microbial hygiene/safety, along with some basic hygiene/microbial principles. Therefore, activities in the kitchen should be done in a way that adheres to good food safety practices and attitudes. For example HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) recognized by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), European Commission, Australia and Australia

The New Zealand Food Safety Authority and the World Health Organization (WHO) are already gaining popularity in developing countries as a means of ensuring food safety (1). While many consumers have frequently raised concerns about restaurant kitchens and communal kitchens, there is statistical evidence that a significant number of all foodborne outbreaks occur in the home. According to the most recent surveillance report from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in the United States alone, in 2016, there were 76 outbreaks (10%) and 895 reported cases (7%) that were traced to households ( 2 ) . On the other hand, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) indicated that the most frequent location of foodborne illness outbreaks was recorded as 'home/kitchen' (2013) (3).

While home kitchens are known not only as storage places, but also as multipurpose areas, consumers have a crucial role to play in preventing foodborne illness. Furthermore, the various sources from which microorganisms can be transferred to food are known. This includes: hands, body fluids or clothing worn by people who prepare food; dirty kitchen utensils, dirty cooking water, pets, etc. Anything living or non-living in the kitchen that might harbor microorganisms that can be transferred to food at any stage of preparation can serve as a source of contamination. Indeed, microbial contamination of food can occur at any of the many stages of food preparation, from raw food and ingredients, cooking or preparation process, to the handling and storage of cooked food.

* Contamination of raw vegetables and ingredients: Many raw vegetables, including vegetables, tubers, roots that grow in the soil, are naturally contaminated by microorganisms in the soil, and even after washing, the cells of these microorganisms remain in the raw vegetables. Tree fruits contain debris and spores from airborne microbial cells. Raw animal foods such as meat and milk become contaminated with microorganisms from the skin and intestines of animals during slaughter or milking.

* Cooking contamination: Cooking contamination occurs when microorganisms introduced into food as described above or through dirty cooking water, dirty kitchen utensils, hands, sneezing, coughing or other bodily excretions are not removed during the cooking process. Most bacteria associated with foodborne illness are killed when exposed to temperatures between 60 and 80ºC; Mold requires higher temperatures, while bacterial and fungal spores require temperatures close to the boiling point or higher. If foods containing these microbial elements are not cooked so that each part of the food reaches the proper temperature, contaminants can remain in the food. Also, vegetables are generally not heated to high temperatures. Therefore, contaminating microorganisms must be eliminated by mechanisms other than heat.

* Contamination of cooked foods: The most common mechanism of contamination of cooked foods is improper handling of ready-to-eat foods, allowing microorganisms from raw or dirty foods to come into contact with ready-to-eat foods. For example, when grilling chicken, the kitchen user can use the same spatula to go from raw chicken to pre-roasted chicken, transferring microbes to the finished chicken in the process.

Given the previous information (and others not mentioned) found in a typical domestic kitchen, there is a need to look at aspects of Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety (SFHMS) in order to complement the existing information. Therefore, the specific aim of this article is to provide a compact overview of food hygiene and microbiological safety in the typical home kitchen. Here we have broken down this important topic of healthy eating at home into basic and simpler steps/points, with the aim of making the content of the evolving subtopics a little less technical, with more clarity and understanding for the average home kitchen user. as the scientific community at large. This summary is structured as follows: some definitions of basic Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety (FHMS) terms applicable to home kitchens; Snapshots of some of the major foodborne pathogens and associated illnesses/diseases; cooking components and associated microbial hygiene/safety; Food hygiene and microbiological safety in a typical kitchen; and human activities/participation in the microbiological safety of food hygiene.

Some definitions of basic Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety (FHMS) terms applicable to home kitchens

To achieve a high level of food hygiene/microbiological safety in the typical home kitchen, we believe that one should start by gaining knowledge and understanding of some definitions of basic concepts and associated efforts. Such knowledge and understanding would help to shed more light on the principles underpinning food hygiene microbiological safety contexts and possibly all (related/relevant) applications. In this document, some basic principles of hygiene/microbiological food safety related to the kitchen are briefly highlighted at the authors' discretion: cross-contamination, susceptibility, hygiene/food safety/poisoning, foodborne illness, safe handling practices, sanitizers/disinfectants. , cleaning/disinfection, microbial growth/multiplication, reservoir of foodborne illness, spread of foodborne illness, resident microbial flora, microbial biofilm, signs/symptoms, nausea, bacteremia, septicemia, diarrhea, hemorrhage, and pathogenicity/virulence. These term definitions are briefly described below:

cross contamination

According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), cross-contamination is the transfer of harmful bacteria to food from other foods, cutting boards, utensils, etc. when not handled properly. This is especially true when handling raw meat, poultry and seafood. So keep these foods and their juices away from already cooked or ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce (4). Food security vulnerability

This is a person's ability to get sick from contaminated food. For example, vulnerable people such as the very old/elderly or infirm/infirm are more susceptible to infection from foodborne pathogens, with serious consequences, than healthy adults (5).

Food hygienic

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), food hygiene refers to the conditions and measures necessary to ensure food safety from production to consumption. Food can become contaminated at any time during slaughter or harvesting, processing, storage, distribution, transport and preparation. Poor food hygiene can lead to foodborne illness and consumer death (6).

food safety

According to the Australian Institute of Food Safety, food safety refers to the handling, preparation and storage of food in such a way as to minimize the risk of people contracting foodborne illness. Food security is a global concern that encompasses a variety of different aspects of daily life (7).

poisoned food

According to the Better Health Channel of the government of the Australian state of Victoria, foodborne illness occurs when there are sufficient amounts of certain types of bacteria or their toxins in the food we eat. These bacteria are called “pathogens” (8).

food diseases

According to the WHO, foodborne illness encompasses a wide range of illnesses that result from the consumption of food contaminated with chemicals or microorganisms. Importantly, food contamination can occur at any stage, from production to consumption, and can result from environmental contamination, including water, soil, or air contamination (9).

foodborne illnesses

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), foodborne illness is defined as infections or irritations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract caused by foods or beverages that contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, or chemicals. . The gastrointestinal tract is a series of hollow organs connected in a long, winding tube from the mouth to the anus. Common symptoms of foodborne illness include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and chills (10).

Safe handling practices in food safety

This concept is well known and widely describes policies/processes that minimize potential hazards/risks in food products with the aim of improving both productivity and quality.


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the term "disinfectant" is attributed to chemical agents used on inanimate (i.e., inanimate) objects (e.g., floors, walls, sinks) to virtually destroy all recognized pathogenic microorganisms, but not necessarily all microbial forms (eg bacterial endospores). The EPA has grouped disinfectants based on whether the product label indicates a "limited", "general", or "hospital" disinfectant (11).


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the term "disinfection" refers to the destruction of pathogenic and other microorganisms by physical or chemical means. Disinfection is less lethal than sterilization because it destroys most recognized pathogenic microorganisms, but not necessarily all microbial forms such as. B. Bacterial spores. Disinfection does not guarantee the safety margin associated with sterilization processes (11).


(Video) What is food safety?

According to ServSafe®, cleaning removes food and other types of dirt from a surface such as a countertop or plate (12).


According to ServSafe®, disinfection reduces the number of pathogens on that cleaned surface to safe levels (12).

microbial growth

In microbiology, the term "microbial growth" is defined as a process of increasing the number of cells in an organism. For example, bacteria grow and divide by binary fission, a quick and relatively simple process. The prerequisites for growth are essentially physical (temperature, pH value, osmotic pressure) and chemical (from carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus to oxygen) (13).

microbial proliferation

This simply refers to a continued increase in microbial growth/number, which is highly dependent on the type of organism(s) present as well as the initial concentration of microorganisms (14).

reservoir of foodborne illness

Soil, dust and grains serve as reservoirs for foodborne and waterborne diseases, and wild and domestic fish, birds, reptiles and mammals are reservoirs for bacteria and parasites, according to the Victoria State Health Services Centre, Australia. Humans serve as a reservoir for viruses (15).

Spread of Illnesses/Foodborne Illnesses

This familiar term usually refers to the ability of a vector to spread a microbial pathogen from one location to another.

Resident microbial flora

According to WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in healthcare settings, the resident flora (resident microbiota) consists of microorganisms that reside below the surface cells of the stratum corneum and are also found on the surface of the skin (16).

microbial biofilms

According to Davey and O'toole (17), biofilms refer to complex communities of microorganisms adhered to surfaces or adhered to interfaces. These microbial communities are often composed of multiple species that interact with each other and their environment. Determining biofilm architecture, particularly the spatial arrangement of microcolonies (clusters of cells) in relation to one another, has profound implications for the functioning of these complex communities.

signs and symptoms

These (signs and symptoms) are abnormalities that indicate possible diseases/medical conditions. Although a symptom is subjective, i.e. h visible only to the patient (e.g. back pain and/or fatigue), a sign is any objective evidence of an emerging disease state that is recognized/observed by others (e.g. rash or nodule) (18) .


This is an upset stomach that causes a feeling of vomiting. It can be a trigger for vomiting stomach contents, and this condition has many causes and is usually preventable (19).


This is an infection caused by bacteria that enter the bloodstream. It can also be referred to as blood poisoning, sepsis, septic shock, blood poisoning and/or blood bacteria (20).


Sepsis and septicemia are medical terms that refer to infections and the human body's response to these infections. Although the two words are not interchangeable (as is commonly believed), sepsis is an extreme inflammatory response to infection, while septicemia is the presence of bacteria in the blood stream that causes sepsis, hence "sepsis poisoning".


A common health condition characterized by abnormally loose/watery stools, largely caused by bacteria, viruses, and/or parasites, causing infection in the gastrointestinal tract. Examples of bacteria that can cause diarrhea are Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Shigella spp. and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (22).


It can refer to blood loss inside (internal bleeding) or outside (external bleeding) of the body and can occur in almost any area of ​​the body (23).


This term refers to the ability of an organism to cause disease (i.e. harm the host). This ability represents a genetic aspect of the pathogen along with the apparent damage inflicted on the host as a property of host-pathogen interactions (24).


This term is often used synonymously with pathogenicity. It refers to the degree of pathology caused by a specific organism. The level of virulence actually correlates with the ability of the pathogen to replicate in the host and can be influenced by other factors, ie conditional h (24).

To reiterate, the reason we provide these term definitions is to provide readers with the background knowledge needed to understand the relevant content and context of microbiological food hygiene and microbiological safety whenever or wherever they are mentioned. This puts readers, especially those who are not experts in microbiology, in a better position to better follow the sections that follow, starting with some important foodborne pathogens and associated illnesses/diseases.

Snapshots of some major foodborne pathogens and associated illnesses/diseases

After discussing some definitions of food hygiene/microbiological safety concepts, in this section we will provide snapshots of some important foodborne pathogens, specifically bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria spp. and Yersinia spp. and their corresponding illnesses/diseases. To develop them, we emphasize the reservoir animals associated with these pathogens, the food vehicles, the modes of transmission and the way in which the diseases end up manifesting themselves through signs/symptoms in humans. How these diseases are treated is not highlighted or discussed in this section (and in the present article), as the authors consider this to be outside the scope of the specific objective of this brief review. Our aim here is to point out foodborne pathogens and associated illnesses/diseases that may be predictable in the context of a typical domestic kitchen, so that kitchen users are aware that such foodborne pathogens exist and can make their way into the kitchen, especially when Hygiene standards are at very high levels and low levels will affect levels. And therefore, everything must be done in such a way that high standards of hygiene are observed to prevent the occurrence of diseases.

(Video) Food Safety & Hygiene Training Video in English Level 1

1) Salmonella spp. The bacteria (with Salmonella typhimurium as the main implicated species) have poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs and fish/shellfish as reservoirs. Thus, food carriers may include meat products and poultry eggs, fried or ground beef, and dairy products. The route of transmission is the ingestion of contaminated food or water, consumption of infected food or animal products. The human disease is a widely localized gastroenteritis with significant signs/symptoms including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bacteremia and even blood poisoning (25). The factors that determine the virulence of bacteria of the genus Salmonella, allowing their infection and survival, include mechanisms of adhesion to host cells, invasion and replication in host cells, polysaccharide coating and even toxin production (26).

2) Campylobacter spp. The bacteria (with Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni as the main species involved) have poultry, cattle, pigs and piglets as reservoir animals. Therefore, food carriers can include poultry products, raw milk and water. The route of transmission includes ingestion of contaminated food or water and consumption of infected animals with food. The human disease is campylobacteriosis with important signs/symptoms such as acute diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, bloody intestinal diarrhea, esophageal disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, celiac disease and even colon cancer (25). The properties of Campylobacter bacteria that allow their infection and survival include motility mechanisms, drug resistance, adhesion to host epithelial cells, invasion of host cells, and toxin production (26).

3) Listeria spp. The bacteria (with Listeria monocytogenes as the main species) have cattle, sheep, goats and birds as reservoirs. Thus, food carriers may include crustaceans, molluscs, shellfish, cheese, beef, pork, vegetables and dairy products. Mode of infection includes ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct contact with infected animals or consumption of food from infected animals, and personal contact. The human disease is listeriosis, with signs/symptoms ranging from invasive diseases, such as meningitis, bacteremia, endocarditis, to non-invasive diseases, such as febrile gastroenteritis (25). Furthermore, the determinants of the pathogenicity of L. monocytogenes that establish its virulence include adhesion protein, listeriolysin O, secretory systems, phospholipases C (PlcA and PlcB), surface proteins ActaA and protein OrfX (26).

4) Yersinia spp. The bacterium (with Yersinia enterocolitica as the main species) has cattle, sheep and pigs as reservoir. Therefore, carrier foods can be raw or undercooked pork, but also fresh and pasteurized milk, infected shellfish, and (drinking) water. Modes of infection include ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct contact with infected animals, infected tissues, and person-to-person contact. The human disease is yersinosis, with important signs/symptoms such as severe gastritis and enteritis, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea (often bloody) with complications such as erythema, myocarditis and, more rarely, sepsis and endocarditis (26). Furthermore, factors/mechanisms that facilitate Y. enterocolitica infection include host cell adhesion and invasion, type III secretory system motility, lipopolysaccharides, heat-stable enterotoxins, urease production, and even avoidance of infection. of the host (26).

5) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (with senogroup O151 being the most common, but O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 as the main species involved) has cattle, sheep, goats and a smaller proportion of pigs, cats and (some) other ruminants. Therefore, food carriers may include raw ground beef, raw milk, raw vegetables, fruits, water, cheese, and curd. Routes of transmission include ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct contact or consumption of food from infected animals, and person-to-person contact. The disease in humans is a severe hemorrhagic colitis with main symptoms such as bloody diarrhea, acute abdominal cramps, vomiting and even hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) (25).

One might wonder why we chose these specific food-borne pathogens mentioned above. We selected them because they are classified as important food-borne animal pathogens. In addition, food contamination imposes enormous socioeconomic burdens on society. Year after year, the world's population on all continents is affected by foodborne pathogens. Not only does it increase the likelihood of contamination and spread by foodborne pathogens, but these pathogens also enter the food chain at all times between the producer and the consumer (27). With the previous information in mind, the following sections cover the kitchen components and the associated microbiological hygiene/safety, the food hygiene/microbiological safety in the typical kitchen and the human activities and their participation in the hygiene/microbiological safety of the foods.

Cooking components and associated microbial hygiene/safety

A well-equipped kitchen has components such as fridge/freezer, cookware, pantry, sink/bowl, table/hob, range, oven and dishwasher. The use of these kitchen components varies from home to home and is highly dependent on factors such as family size, level of automation, income level, awareness and efforts to achieve optimal hygiene, and knowledge and understanding of kitchen hygiene. Table 1 presents a hypothetical scenario of susceptibility to microbial contamination, frequency of use and daily cleaning routine of the mentioned kitchen components. The ratings in this table are hypothetical and represent an ideal scenario where each kitchen owner has optimal knowledge and understanding of (food) hygiene and microbiological safety, and where the individual assumes a high susceptibility to microbial contamination. in the frequency of the daily cleaning routine.

Essentially, cross-contamination of foodborne pathogens in the home kitchen is among the leading causes of foodborne illness worldwide (28). Also, bacterial cross-contamination can occur in many places in the kitchen. Consequently, kitchen utensils such as knives, food processing surfaces, and equipment/equipment used to clean surfaces such as dish towels, all involved in the food preparation process, can be contaminated with pathogens that may be present (29). . Furthermore, materials that retain less microorganisms after cleaning would be the hygienic choice and would pose a low risk of cross-contamination. For example, a cutting board on a counter/table can be susceptible to cross-contamination, particularly from raw meat and poultry juices left on the surface, leading to a variety of microorganisms that spread to other foods. surface to be prepared. It is possible that cracks/wear affect the hygienic state of the surfaces (30).

When used utensils are washed in the kitchen, it is recommended that they (the used utensils) are subsequently stored in a plastic collection container (thermosetting) already provided with a bottom similar to a drain pan to allow the water to drain for initial drying. And that (special) bowl-shaped base that holds the drained water (from) essentially requires regular cleaning to ensure it stays dry. It is also recommended to use tea towels (lint free) to ensure that these utensils, including pots, etc., are also thoroughly dry before placing them in a closed drawer/shelf. And since this closed utensil drawer/rack is most likely made of wood, it should be checked regularly to ensure it remains clean, dry, and odor-free. However, the surfaces of kitchen components such as utensils, table/countertop, stove, oven, dishwasher, refrigerator and freezer should be cleaned and dried regularly. And the use of commercial detergent can play a useful role in sanitizing these surfaces.

Refrigerators should be thoroughly cleaned routinely and within prescribed times to help maintain the highest standards of hygiene and prevent odor build-up. And depending on the frequency of use, freezers, on the other hand, need to be cleaned well (from time to time), although the frequency of cleaning in this context is much less compared to refrigerators. Keeping domestic kitchen components in the best hygienic conditions, even before thinking about food safety, is of great necessity, especially when the main focus is to control, contain and prevent diseases and/or occurrence/spread of infections. Maintaining a high level of hygiene for all kitchen components requires consistency, diligence, perseverance and avoiding delays. For example, washing used dishes (immediately/briefly) after use, cleaning the microwave (immediately/briefly) after use, drying kitchen utensils immediately after washing before putting them away in their respective rooms should be more a habit and a routine.

Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety (FHMS) in a typical kitchen

Given the ubiquitous nature of microorganisms, potential sources of food contamination are numerous. Consequently, it is common for these microorganisms to gain access to food. However, accessing food is one thing and growing food is another. As mentioned above, the basic objective of food safety practice is to prevent the growth of microorganisms and/or the production of their toxins in food. Basically, the factors that influence microbial growth in foods and lead to spoilage have been broadly classified into intrinsic, extrinsic and biotic aspects. While intrinsic factors (contained in food) include biological structure, pH, moisture, oxidation-reduction potential, antimicrobial constituents and nutrient content, extrinsic factors (storage environment) affect food and associated microorganisms include relative humidity, atmosphere and temperature. On the other hand, biotic factors include synergism, growth rate and metabiosis (31). On the other hand, it is important to note that awareness of foodborne risks would not necessarily be enough to encourage or motivate people to adopt good hygiene practices. Most likely, changing perceptions of hygiene practices in today's society may lead to (some) increases in the microbiological hazards of home-prepared foods (32).

Furthermore, it is assumed that both food quality and safety are highly dependent on (storage) temperature, even considering the perspective from preparation to consumption. Both above and below freezing, cold storage appears to be the most widely used method of preserving food. Furthermore, misinterpretation of food storage instructions would create an opportunity for the emergence of a particular foodborne pathogen and the materialization of associated disease risks (32). Therefore, for microbial growth to occur, at least one viable cell must be present, even if the food (article) contains sufficient nutrients to support microbial growth. This makes the basic objective of microbiological hygiene/safety in a kitchen very crucial, namely the control of these factors (referred to above), with the main objective of reducing the number and presence of microorganisms (pathogens) in food. , contributing to the goal would also reduce the incidence/spread of foodborne illness.

The importance and major dangers of foodborne illness should not be underestimated. In the US, cases of foodborne illness due to known pathogens such as Norovirus, Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were the most numerous, while most deaths were caused by Salmonella, Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes, Norovirus and Campylobacter spp. (5). Basically, foodborne illnesses caused by microorganisms are generally classified into two types: foodborne infection and foodborne illness. It is important to emphasize that a foodborne illness is classified as a foodborne illness if the illness is due to the consumption of live microorganisms in the food that can grow in the consumer's body and cause symptoms. Instead, it becomes poisoning when the illness is due to the consumption of toxins produced by contaminating microorganisms in food. Still, these diseases can be avoided by knowing some basic food safety facts. The factors that favor microbial growth in foods have already been mentioned. Therefore, microbiological safety practices are such that they counteract these favorable factors to make the food unfavorable for the growth of microorganisms and their activities. Some common examples are described below:

* If dishes and pans are washed in the kitchen, it is advisable to let these utensils dry before putting them away. However, it is a common mistake in many families, especially low-income families with small kitchens, to simply put dishes and pans away after washing without drying. There is a microbiological safety issue in this practice. Most microorganisms need moisture to grow; The more moisture there is, the more organisms can grow. If just 100 bacterial cells are placed in a pot with a little moisture, those 100 cells will multiply to nearly 5,000 cells in just six hours, while 1,000 bacterial cells deposited on a very dry surface will probably still be 1,000 cells in the same six hours. . Therefore, a simple mistake in the kitchen, such as not drying the pans before putting them away, can pose a serious microbiological risk in the kitchen.

* It is common to prepare food long before consumption, but this is also a microbiological risk in the kitchen. If possible, storing food at room temperature should be avoided. Many organisms can multiply rapidly at room temperature and, as in the example described above, some bacterial cells deposited in food, especially already cooked food, can rapidly multiply in large numbers within hours and become sources of infection or poisoning. However, storing food in the refrigerator can prevent these cells from multiplying, unless the organisms are psychrophilic (cold-loving). If food has been stored at room temperature for a few hours, it must be reheated before consumption.

Achieving a high level of microbiological safety in the kitchen context is not very difficult, but studies have shown that knowledge and practice of proper kitchen hygiene among home kitchen users is insufficient, leading to a higher prevalence of errors in handling food. food in domestic kitchens (33 ). ). In addition, factors that favor the emergence of foodborne illnesses, e.g. Cross-contamination, poor sanitation of food processors, contamination of processed foods, storing food at room temperature, avoiding food pre-preparation and inadequate/insufficient thawing of frozen foods (31). Improper handling of household foods and unhygienic practices would be considered vital in existing sporadic cases of foodborne illness. For example, in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Canada, there is evidence that up to 87% of foodborne illness outbreaks are related to food prepared or consumed at home (28).

However, the definition of food safety does not change its main objective and would continue to be associated with the conditions and practices for protecting the quality of food, helping to prevent the appearance of contamination, as well as its subsequent appearance/spread of diseases. /Foodborne illnesses. (3.4) . Therefore, a healthy kitchen is very important to ensure a high level of food safety standards. For example, avoiding germs is achieved through the four Cs of food safety, namely: cross-contamination, cleaning, cooking and refrigeration. Avoid cross-contamination by washing hands before and immediately after handling raw foods (e.g. ). Thus, scenarios could be derived in which the preparation (activity) of food in the domestic kitchen could give rise to this cross-contamination, which could occur in any of its components/locations. For example, foods such as beef, lamb, pork and shellfish have been identified as the main sources of bacterial contamination. L. monocytogenes is a well-known foodborne pathogen established in the European Union, for example in Portugal, and prevalent in food products such as milk, meat, fish, flour and cream cheese. Bacteria can not only adhere to these foods/materials, but also serve as a potential source of contamination that can lead to disease transmission (29). In particular, the persistence of microorganisms, the presence and density of pathogens, and the possible spread of microbial contaminants from contaminated food have been documented in the scientific literature. Previously reported microbial surveys of household infection risk found the kitchen to be the highest given the significant diversity of bacterial contaminants including fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp., even after food preparation (36).

For hand hygiene to be effective in the kitchen context, it is important to ensure that different areas of hand hygiene are covered, as the "infectious dose" of (many common pathogens) transmitted by food is always very small. Some key aspects are cleaning with detergents, chemical disinfectants, surface drying (decontamination) and domestic water treatment. Therefore, hand hygiene is very important, as the hand itself is an important source of cross-contamination. This situation may be due to the contact and transmission of bacteria, fungi and viruses between hands and food surfaces, which would generally lead to an increased risk of exposure to foodborne infections. In addition, hygiene practices that break the chain of infection transmission are also very important (37). In addition to the hand, there are deposits/pastures such as rags, sponges and other cleaning accessories that, when used correctly, can help loosen particles from surfaces to remove a significant portion of the dirt and microbes present. There are also washing issues where the risk of infection/transmission associated with dish towels is likely to increase, for example when a family member suffers from diarrhea or vomiting, or a skin infection or sore. Another reservoir of microorganisms in the kitchen is the sink, as the moisture present provides an ideal substrate to support the growth of the resident microbial population. Therefore, sink disinfection is recommended when there is an infected person or a person who is particularly susceptible to infection. Routine cleaning and disinfection of the sink is considered an appropriate means of preventing the accumulation of microbial biofilm in these locations (37).

Many studies have identified kitchen components, small examples such as sponges, as vital diffusers of pathogens that can contaminate food, inevitably acting as a reservoir for food-borne pathogens such as E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. It helps to prosper. And when transferred to food contact surfaces (in the kitchen), these microorganisms have the ability to remain viable for hours to days after contamination (38). Transmission of bacteria to other foods/surfaces is easily accomplished through hands/hand contact surfaces such as cutting boards, knives and bowls. Good percentage of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. can spread to cutting boards during the preparation of naturally contaminated chicken. Salmonella spp. it can be transferred to faucets in the same way. E. coli can be transferred to lettuce even after the cutting board has been stored overnight. Most or always dirty hands more or less touch the faucets before washing their hands. Essentially, hand and food contact hygiene helps reduce the risk of cross-contamination (3). Meanwhile, hand washing during and after food preparation is among the control measures that help to reduce the occurrence of microbiological hazards, particularly in a given household (32). In addition, the cleaning activity ranges from timely decontamination of (used) kitchen utensils to kill germs to promoting the use of disposable cloths/towels. While thoroughly cooking meat kills microorganisms that can cause stomach discomfort, chilling foods to freezing slows microbial growth (35).

Microbiological concerns in kitchen floors and walls have been the subject of much debate for some time. Furthermore, a (very) clean floor and wall would demonstrate and reflect not only the home's beautiful appearance and cozy kitchen, but also a (perceived) first-class level of hygiene/microbiological safety. Though it is not always plausible for consumers (visitors, as in this case) to access and traverse a home's kitchen to determine how clean the kitchen is that produced a particular dish of food. In the situation where they can walk in and see the clean floor and walls (and presumably a very well organized home kitchen), they (the visitors) would certainly feel (much more) relaxed about the food they brought earlier. consume. Therefore, it would be worthwhile for future studies to aim to fully determine how food hygiene would affect consumers' feelings about food preparation, consumption, and even storage compared to a clean kitchen environment. However, routine disinfection of floors still faces a lot of resistance because it would do little to reduce the risk of cross-infection where it exists. However, hygienic cleaning with disinfectants is still recommended in certain high-risk situations, especially in the presence of an infected and/or susceptible person. If the floor and walls (in the kitchen) have been affected by vomit, blood, etc., in addition to cleaning, disinfection is recommended (37).

Despite what was said in this section of this earlier review, the main objective of safe food hygiene practices is still to remove unwanted contaminants, as they can poison food, which can have a negative impact on community health (39). Even at low doses, microbes can still cause infections, as pathogens can survive for hours or weeks on many household surfaces (40). Therefore, the risk of human infection remains a determinant of foodborne pathogens, considering that the latter can persist or survive in (food) products (41), even in typical home cooking. Therefore, implementing safe hygiene practices would help to eliminate the risk of infection and/or transmission of foodborne pathogens. Undoubtedly, consumer safety measures are crucial as the final step in food preparation to prevent foodborne illness, and consumer food safety in the kitchen is becoming the “last line of defense” (36).

Human activities/participation in food hygiene/microbiological safety (FHMS)

Some definitions of FHMS concepts applicable to home cooking, snapshots of some foodborne pathogens and associated illnesses, kitchen components and associated microbial hygiene/safety and microbiological safety of kitchen food hygiene have been discussed so far in this review. Next, one should identify how humans carry out food hygiene/microbiological safety activities in the kitchen, followed by how they can be maintained. Firstly, for food to be edible and useful as a raw material, it must be properly handled and prepared, which must be proven by the work efforts of the food safety officer/qualified person(s). Secondly, the competence and/or qualification of the person(s) must be very relative, taking into account the experience/expertise in training (hygiene/food safety) (already) acquired through formal or informal means. Thirdly, it should be considered more important that the person(s) adopt and effectively work the correct concepts/principles of Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety (FHMS) within the kitchen environment in relation to the raw materials of the foods, the stages of preparation and consumption/storage. .

To better understand the potential kitchen user skills already mentioned, it would be useful to consider two hypothetical scenarios. Consider two (promising) individuals 'A' and 'B': individual 'A' aged 6-7 years has been extensively cared for in kitchen activities for 15 years (informal), may have equivalent food hygiene - /microbiological safety knowledge with another person 'B' who is 17 years old without experience/previous training in the kitchen, who has now completed a (formal) training as a chef/cookmaker diploma of about 4 years, now he is competent to serve in a restaurant. In these two individual scenarios, for both to work efficiently using the FHMS concepts/principles, there is no doubt that a clean kitchen environment must be maintained, which directly determines the high-quality safety level of the kitchens. , preparation and feeding. consumption stages. In light of these connections (mentioned above), we propose a scheme that shows human activity/participation during the phases of feeding (as) raw material, preparation and consumption, adding food contaminants that can lead to food poisoning, all within the food environment. kitchen. as shown in Fig. 1. And despite the fact that food contamination can occur at any stage of the raw material process, food preparation and consumption, all of which are considered in the kitchen environment as improper/unsafe handling of raw food materials probably since the onset, increase the likelihood of contamination (of food) and, in the worst case, poisoning.

Here can be considered a scenario that takes place in different households, for example, where used kitchen utensils, for example, B. Plates, spoons, forks, etc. left unwashed in the sink overnight after dinner until the next morning (day). Not only is this a very bad habit/practice in home cooking (hygiene), such leftover food particles can create a pathway for some (early stages of) microbial spoilage processes which, if they progress, would result in bad food. spoils the atmosphere of the kitchen environment. These utensils used without washing (left in the sink) can promote food contamination, especially when there is an unfinished dish nearby (in the pot and on the stove) that needs to be eaten the next day (morning). Since the stove and sink are likely to be close to each other, as is the case in many small home kitchens, food contamination can occur, potentially leading to food poisoning. The beginning of such a scenario could be when a kitchen user, while washing said used utensils (if done by hand and with little or no care) might (unaware of the occurrence) allow small pieces of rotten food particles to get inside. on the sink and cooktop surface(s). And therefore, through poor handling of leftover food containers by the kitchen occupant, the microbial entity on the surface of the container can potentially invade the food and cause a possible contamination and/or poisoning at the worst of the cases. It has also been clearly repeated in the literature that poor hygiene and improper handling of food pose a significant risk of contamination and food poisoning. It is important to highlight that people who handle food (food processors) are very important to ensure food safety and prevent disease, as both poor hygiene and ineffective hand washing are among the main risk factors for food contamination leading to to foodborne illness (42).

Therefore, food hygiene practices adopted by consumers, particularly when cleaning, cooking, preparing, serving and storing food, are crucial in determining the root cause of a large number of foodborne illnesses (34). The path of human involvement for the use of concepts/principles of Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety (FHMS) in the domestic kitchen is shown in Figure 2. Basically, kitchen users should have (some) knowledge bases about the concepts/principles from FHMS to achieve their effectiveness and efficient application in domestic/domestic kitchen components. Therefore, the acquisition of such a knowledge base should be seen as a necessary step before such FHMS concepts/principles can be constructively, effectively and successfully used and maintained within the home/home kitchen context and (extended) beyond. Indeed, consumers have a key role to play in preventing foodborne illness. Although it is widely believed that consumers have some knowledge about the proper steps that can prevent the spread of foodborne illness, particularly from food preparation to handling, many are still not putting this knowledge and understanding into practice (34) .

Table 2 provides a summary of some of the Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety (FHMS) dos and don'ts that apply to home kitchens. While this isn't an exhaustive list, it's clear that there's more to it than just don'ts. ts. If a parent changed the bucket, used the bathroom, or took out the trash, it's important to wash your hands before and after. Care must be taken when using gloves as they can catch fire. In general, kitchen cleanliness should be maintained and can be achieved by following important basic routines such as: B. Properly disposing of food scraps and crumbs, cleaning tables with soap, sweeping and mopping the floor with a damp cloth, cleaning all surfaces , including handles and knobs, refrigerator handles, oven handles, etc. Kitchen towels, aprons and towels should be washed in the washing machine. machine regularly. Furthermore, cutting boards (regardless of whether they are plastic or wood) must be cleaned after use, disinfected and dried before (each) reuse. Can openers, for example, should also be thoroughly cleaned immediately after (each) use. It is important to note that frozen foods must be thawed in the fridge, microwave and oven, or by placing the sealed packages under cold running water. It is also important that all kitchen users follow the instructions found, for example, on food packaging, etc. Furthermore, the essence of storing food in airtight containers is to ensure that ventilation is limited to zero and, more importantly, zero exposure to microbial elements. While all spills must be cleaned up immediately to prevent slips and other accidents (in the kitchen), this will essentially minimize the emergence and spread of foodborne pathogens (44).

As is known, domestic kitchens serve not only as storage space(s), but also as multipurpose areas. Kitchen sinks are used for washing dishes, wetting clothes, washing children and wetting mops. Although the food security chain sees the home as the "last line of defense", many believe that men, whether adults under 30 or over 64, and those with at least some postgraduate education are more likely to secondary, make mistakes in handling food. education (45). For example, according to ServSafe®, cleaning and disinfection must follow a four-step process to be highly effective. This means surfaces need to be cleaned, rinsed, sanitized and air dried (12). And since most foodborne illnesses are sporadic, mild, unconfirmed and unreported, researchers believe that cases attributed to household food handling errors may be much higher, although many consumers still do not consider the home as a place of risk for foodborne illnesses ( 45) . Certainly, inadequate food hygiene practices would favor the occurrence of foodborne illnesses, which makes training in food hygiene very important (46). Furthermore, it is believed that most food hygiene training relies heavily on providing (useful) information. For food hygiene education to be effective, it must focus on (some) changes in behaviors most likely to lead to foodborne illness (47).

Fig. 2. Path of human participation in the use of Microbiological Food Hygiene (FHMS) concepts/principles in the home/domestic kitchen below] Extension of FHMS concepts/principles


A compact overview of the basics that the general public needs to know about Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety (FHMS) in home kitchens has been undertaken. There is documented evidence that cooking contributes significantly to the incidence and spread of foodborne illness and the general public needs to recognize this fact. With the increasing prevalence of foodborne illness worldwide, the typical home kitchen remains one of the places where high levels of food hygiene and microbiological safety must be performed as the last "line of defense" for consumers. Regardless of the factors that lead to food spoilage, one should never underestimate the ability of foodborne pathogens to survive and/or thrive in a given food (dish) prepared in the home kitchen. Therefore, a clean and healthy kitchen is very important to maintain a high level of quality in the microbiological hygiene of food. On the other hand, the appearance of microorganisms in kitchen components is largely due to factors ranging from cross-contamination, kitchen surface humidity to the resident microbial flora. As the "infectious dose" of many common foodborne pathogens is always very small, effective hand hygiene is very important. Since microbial reservoirs can accumulate, routine home kitchen disinfection/sanitization is very important. Even when food handling errors do occur, continued holistic observance of do's and don'ts (mentioned above), which helps ensure optimal FHMS conditions in a typical home kitchen, would go a long way in preventing their occurrence. of foodborne illnesses/diseases.


The authors thank Eng. Adetunji Alabi (Masdar Institute-Khalifa University UAE) for his help with the numbers. It is important to note that the authors did not receive funding to carry out this review.

(Video) Food Handling Safety Training from


The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding this review study.


All authors made a significant, direct and intellectual contribution to the work and approved it for publication.




All datasets generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and/or supplemental files.


This article does not include human or animal studies conducted by any of the authors.


(1.) Gorman, R., Bloomfield, S., Adely, CC. A study of cross-contamination of foodborne pathogens in domestic cooking in the Republic of Ireland. International J. Food Microbiol. 2002; 76(1-2): 143-150.

(2.) Foodborne Outbreaks: In: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention;; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 20:41 GMT.

(3.) Rossvoll E, Langsrud S, Bloomfield S, Moen B, Heir E, Moretro T. The effects of different sanitation procedures on reducing bacterial contamination in a model home kitchen. J. Appl. microbiological 2015; 119:582-593.

(4.) Be smart. Keep food separate. Do not pollute; foods-apart/CT_Index Accessed April 17, 2019 at 09:11 GMT.

(5.) Lund, B. M. Microbiological Food Safety for Vulnerable People. international J. Environment. Public Health Resolution 2015; 12(8): 10117-10132.

(6.) Food Safety: At the World Health Organization;; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 09:33 GMT.

(7.) What is food security? At the Australian Institute of Food Safety;; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 09:27 GMT.

(8.) Food Poisoning - Prevention: On the Better Health Channel of the State Government of Victoria;; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 09:31 GMT

(9.) Foodborne illness: at the World Health Organization;; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 09:34 GMT

(10.) Foodborne Diseases: At the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases;; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 09:37 GMT.

(11.) Oral Health: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; At; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 10:08 GMT.

(12.) cleaning versus disinfection; At ServSafe[R]; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 09:47 GMT.

(13.) Microbial growth (Power Point Presentation {Anonymous}); https://www.; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 09:51 GMT.

(14.) Venter, P., Shale, K., Lues, J.F.R., Buys, E.M. Microbial proliferation and mathematical indices of vacuum-packed beef. Food Processing and Preservation Magazine 2006; 30(4): 433-448.

(15.) Illnesses transmitted by food or water: At health.vic (Victoria Hub for Health Services and Business) of the Australian Government of Victoria;; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 20:47 GMT.

(16.) Normal bacterial flora on hands: in WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health: First Global Patient Safety Challenge Cleaner care is safer care;; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 10:12 GMT.

(17.) Davey ME, O'toole GA Microbial biofilms: from ecology to molecular genetics. microbiological Molecular Biology Rev. 2001; 64(4):847-867.

(18.) signs and symptoms; In Nature:; Accessed June 4, 2019 at 14:10 GMT.

(19.) Nall, R. Everything you need to know about nausea. From HealthLine, clinically reviewed by Saurabh Sethi on April 30, 2019 (; accessed June 4, 2019 14:15 GMT).

(20.) Whitlock, J. Bacteremia: causes and diagnosis. In: Verywellhealth, updated May 12, 2019 (, accessed June 4, 2019 14:19 GMT).

(21.) Torrey, T. Difference between sepsis and sepsis: one is the cause and the other is the effect. From Verywellhealth, updated 7 Dec 2018 (; accessed 4 Jun 2019 15:22 GMT).

(22.) McGill, M. What you need to know about diarrhea. On MedicalNewsToday; Last updated 28th November 2017 (, accessed 19th June 2019 09:40 GMT).

(23.) Blake, K. What causes bleeding? In: Healthline (, medical review October 28, 2016; accessed June 11, 2019, 12:40 GMT).

(Video) Food Safety-3 Importance & Types of Hygiene in Food Safety in Urdu | hindi

(24.) Pathogenicity vs. Virulence -; Retrieved June 7, 2019 at 00:24 GMT

(25.) Heredia, N., García, S. Animals as sources of food-borne pathogens: a review. animal nutrition 2018; 4(3): 250-255.

(26.) Chlebicz, A., Lizewska, K. Campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, and listeriosis as foodborne zoonotic diseases: a review. international J. Environment. Public Health Resolution, 2018; 15, 863; doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050863.

(27.) Dhama K., Rajagunalan S., Chakraborty S., Verma AK, Kumar A., ​​Tiwari R., Kapoor S. Foodborne pathogens of animal origin: diagnosis, prevention, control and its Zoonotic Meaning: A review. package J. Biol. Science. 2013; 16(20): 1076-1085

(28.) Sharma, M., Eastridge, J., Mudd, C. Effective methods of household disinfection of kitchen sponges. food control 2009; 20:310-313.

(29.) Teixeira P, Lima J, Azeredo J, Oliveira R. Adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to materials commonly found in domestic kitchens. international J. FoodSci. technology 2008; 43:1239-1244.

(30.) Oliveira, K., Oliveira, T., Teixeira, P., Azeredo, J., Henriques, M. and Oliveira, R. Comparison of the adhesion of different serotypes of Salmonella Enteritidis to materials used in kitchens. J. Food Protection. 2006; 69(10), 2352-2356.

(31.) Nwachukwu, IM, Nwachukwu, IO 2014. Moderne Lebensmittelmikrobiologie, S. 198, Owerri, Nigeria: Milestone Publishers Ltd., (ISBN: 978-978-52644-5-6).

(32.) Tachi, J., Carpentier, B. Home kitchen hygiene: behavior change and implications for key microbiological risk control measures. food control 2014; 35:392-400.

(33.) Grasso, L., Silverberg, R., Baker, G.L., Goodrich-Schneider, R.M., Schneider, K.R. Food safety at home: risk reduction. FSHN 12-10. Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Extension UF/IFAS, Accessed on April 12, 2019.

(34.) Vyas, S., Kushwaha, A. Consumer perceptions and knowledge of safety of street food services in Pantnagar, India. J. Food Safety Hygiene 2017; 3(1-2): 34-39.

(35.) Food Hygiene and Safety - The 4 C's: in the healthy kitchen and Dettol cafeteria; Accessed 17 April 2019 20:56 GMT.

(36.) Redmond, E.C., Griffith, C.J. Food manipulation by the consumer at home: a review of food safety studies. J. Lebensmittelschutz. 2003; 66(1): 130-161.

(37.) Bloomfield, S., Exner, M., Fara, G.M., Nath, K.J., Scott, E.A. Home hygiene practices and their effectiveness: a review of the scientific evidence base. Scientific Advisory Board of the Internet Science Forum on Home Hygiene (

(38.) EM Rossi, D. Scapin, WF Grando, EC Tondo. Microbiological contamination and disinfection methods of kitchen sponges used in gastronomy. Nutritious food science. 2012; 3, 975-980.

(39.) Saad, M., Ver, T.P., Adil, M.A.M. Hygiene practices of food handlers in training centers of Malaysian government institutions. Proceeded Soc. behavioral science. 2013; 85:118-127.

(40.) Sinclair, R.G., Gerba, C.P. Microbial contamination in kitchens and bathrooms in rural village homes in Cambodia. application of microbiological charts 2010; 52:144-149.

(41.) Alegbeleye, O.O., Singleton, I., Sant'Ana, A.S. Sources and routes of contamination by microbial pathogens in fresh produce during field cultivation: a review. microbial foods 2018; 73: 177-208.

(42.) Lee, HK, Halim, HA, Thong, KL, Chai, LC Assess food safety knowledge, attitude, self-reported practices, and microbiological hand hygiene of food workers. international J. Environment. Public Health Resolution 2017; 14, 55 (https://doi:10.3390/ijerph14010055).

(43.) Food Hygiene and Cooking: in the Prevention and Control of OSH Risks Responses: Canadian Center for Occupational Safety and Health;; Abgerufen am 17. April 2019, 23:28 Uhr GMT.

(44.) Odusanya, Y. 28 Tips for Food Hygiene and Kitchen Safety: In Food and Drink - The Guardian (Resources) Reported Nov 18, 2017 (4:16 am);; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 21:01 GMT.

(45.) Byrd-Bredbenner C, Berning J, Martin-Biggers J Quick V. Food safety in home kitchens: a review of the literature. international J. Environment. Public Health Resolution 2013; 10: 4060-4085.

(46.) Lestantyo, D., Husodo, A.H., Iravati, S., Shaluhiyah, Z. Safe food handling, attitude and practice of food professionals in the hospital kitchen. International J. Public Health Sciences. 2017; 6(4): 324-330.

(47.) Egan, M.B., Raats, M.M., Grubb, S.M., Eves, A., Lumbers, M.L., Dean, M.S., Adams, M.R. A review of food safety studies and hygiene training in the commercial sector. food control 2007; 18:1180-1190.

Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala (1*) (iD) e Ifeoma M. Ezeonu (2)

(1) Independent Academic Research Practice Advisor, c/o Aguiyi Ironsi Street, Off Finbars Road, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. (2) Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

(*) Correspondence:

(Received: April 20, 2019; Accepted: June 18, 2019)

Citation: Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala and Ifeoma M. Ezeonu, Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety in the Typical Home Kitchen: Some Basic Knowledge for the General Public, J Pure Appl Microbiol., 2019; 13(2): 697-713. doi: 10.22207/JPAM.13.2.06

Table 1. Hypothetical scenario of susceptibility to microbial contamination, frequency of use and daily cleaning routine of various kitchen components Less Frequent/Cupboard Table/Counter High High More Frequent Stove High High More Frequent Oven High Medium Less Frequent Dishwasher High High Most Frequent Sink High High Frequent Fridge/Freezer High High Most Frequent
Table 2: Basic Food Hygiene/Microbiological Safety (FHMS) Dos and don'ts in the home kitchen 1) Wash hands before and after handling raw foods; 2) Cover all cuts with a bandage. 1) Do not use aprons to dry yourself and use clean gloves; The hands; 3) Use hair nets to avoid smoking 2) Do not smoke in the kitchen; loose hair falling onto the food; 4) Use serving utensils. 3) If possible, don't keep junk food; Kitchen; 5) Use one clean spoon at a time. 4) Do not reuse containers or for tasting/tasting food. bowl containing raw food; 6) Inspect the kitchen for signs 5) Never skip food for further microbiological growth; two hours, including sliced ​​fruits and vegetables; 7) Inspect the kitchen 6) Do not store food for a long time in leaking pipes; make sure it is used before the expiration date; 8) Use effective cleaning products. 7) Do not overload supplies/disinfectants. The fridge; 9) Be careful with detergents 8) Never defrost nearby foods; kitchen table top; and 10) Clean the food storage area. 9) Do not put cooked food in the same container regularly, especially for dry food; used for raw food. 11) Always use separate cutting boards for raw meat; 12) Wash, rinse, sanitize and dry the cutting boards/utensils before reuse; 13) Wash the lids of the cans before opening so as not to dirty the contents; 14) Store (wet) food packages on plates to prevent them from dripping onto kitchen countertops or other foods; [deg]F);16) Keep refrigerator at 4[deg]C (40[deg]F);17) Store frozen food at -18[deg]C (0[deg]F) or below until ;18 ) Remove rubbish regularly and correctly; 19) Cover the garbage well; 20) Food must be stored in airtight containers; and 21) Use microwave-safe containers. Adapted from these sources: [See Reference 43] Accessed 17 Apr 2019 23:28 GMT; [See reference 44]; Accessed April 17, 2019 at 21:01 GMT.

COPYRIGHT 2019 Oriental Scientific Publisher
No part of this article may be reproduced without the express written permission of the copyright owner.

Copyright 2021 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


What is microbiological criteria for food safety? ›

Microbiological criteria are used to assess the acceptability of food. When a particular food is tested for a particular microorganism (toxin or metabolite) the results can indicate if: the food is safe to eat or not. the food is of acceptability quality, or.

What are the 5 hygienic practices in the kitchen? ›

6 Rules For Good Kitchen Hygiene
  • 1) Wash your hands frequently. ...
  • 2) Cook meals thoroughly. ...
  • 3) Ensure proper food storage. ...
  • 4) Use a good dust bin. ...
  • 5) Avoid cross contamination. ...
  • 6) Clean the kitchen sink thoroughly. ...
  • Install a modular layout to keep your kitchen clutter free.
Dec 7, 2018

What are the basic food safety and hygiene? ›

Four Steps to Food Safety: Clean, Separate, Cook, Chill. Following four simple steps at home—Clean, Separate, Cook, and Chill—can help protect you and your loved ones from food poisoning.

What is food hygiene in microbiology? ›

According to World Health Organization (WHO), food hygiene refers to the conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety of food from production to consumption. Food can become contaminated at any point during slaughtering or harvesting, processing, storage, distribution, transportation and preparation.

What are the types of mandatory microbiological criteria? ›

Microbiological criteria are essentially of three types: standards, guidelines and specifications (IFST, 1999). A standard is a microbiological criterion contained in a law or regulation where compliance is mandatory and is usually focused on safety, although process hygiene criteria have been defined (EC, 2005).

What are the standard microbiological safety practices? ›

12 Safe Practices for the Microbiology Laboratory
  • Treat all microorganisms as potential pathogens. ...
  • Maintain a curated culture collection. ...
  • Obtain fresh stock cultures of microorganisms annually. ...
  • Sterilize equipment and materials. ...
  • Disinfect work areas before and after use. ...
  • Wear protection. ...
  • Wash your hands.
Mar 21, 2020

What are the 7 personal hygiene in the kitchen? ›

  • Kitchen hygiene 101: wash hands. Making sure your hands are clean is at the top of the kitchen hygiene rules list. ...
  • Thoroughly cook foods. ...
  • Correct food storage. ...
  • Wipe down counter tops. ...
  • Food hygiene rules: don't cross-contaminate. ...
  • Clean your chopping board after use. ...
  • Bin basics. ...
  • Stop grease in its tracks.

What is the criteria for microbiology? ›

In order to be eligible for BSc Microbiology, candidates must complete their Class 12 or equivalent from a recognized board with Physics, Chemistry, and Biology as compulsory subjects. BSc Microbiology Admission 2023 is done based on the candidate's marks in the Class 12 examination.

What is microbiological standards and criteria describe? ›

A microbiological guideline is a criterion that often is used by the food industry or a regulatory agency to monitor a manufacturing process. Guidelines function as alert mechanisms to signal whether microbiological conditions prevailing at critical control points or in the finished product are within the normal range.

Why do we use microbiological criteria specifications? ›

A microbiological specification is a criterion applied as part of purchase arrangements to determine acceptability of ingredients or foods as required for ensuring product safety or quality.

What are the components of the microbiological criterion for ready to eat foods? ›

The microbiological limits for ready-to-eat food in general consist of three components: Aerobic colony count (ACC); Hygiene indicator organisms – E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae; Specific foodborne pathogens – ten specific bacterial pathogens.


1. Food Safety Training Video
(Dr Sahid Cholayil)
2. How to get a 5* Hygiene rating for your bakery - All you need to know [Khalids Kakes]
(Khalids Kakes)
3. My Cake Business - Paperwork & Spreadsheets needed for your Health inspection | SFBB Pack, Allergies
(The Baker That Lifts)
4. Restaurant violations: Canada's Restaurant Secrets (CBC Marketplace)
(CBC News)
5. What is HACCP || It's 7 Principle || HACCP for Food safety officer
(PriShi learning)
6. Microbiological testing: what food businesses need to know


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Allyn Kozey

Last Updated: 02/10/2023

Views: 5345

Rating: 4.2 / 5 (43 voted)

Reviews: 90% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Allyn Kozey

Birthday: 1993-12-21

Address: Suite 454 40343 Larson Union, Port Melia, TX 16164

Phone: +2456904400762

Job: Investor Administrator

Hobby: Sketching, Puzzles, Pet, Mountaineering, Skydiving, Dowsing, Sports

Introduction: My name is Allyn Kozey, I am a outstanding, colorful, adventurous, encouraging, zealous, tender, helpful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.